发表于2020-02-12    89人浏览    1人跟帖    总热度:35  


《Life Cycle Costs of Industrial Protective Coatings》




Industrial Galvanizers Corporation (IGC) operates nine galvanizing plants around Australia, ranging in size from large structural galvanizing facilities to specialised small plants designed to process small parts.


The Australian Galvanizing Division has galvanized in excess of 2.5 million tonnes of steel products in Australia since its first plant was commissioned in 1965 and is recognized for its ability to handle complex and difficult projects, as well as routine contracts.


This experience has been collated in the Specifiers Design Manual, to assist those involved in the design of steel products and projects to better understanding the galvanizing process and allow the most durable and cost-effective solutions to be delivered to these products and projects. 



The concept of life cycle costing is not a new>In any life-cycle costing assessment, the initial cost of the coating is an important component in doing any long-term cost analysis, as is the need to determine the likely maintenance free life of the coating and the future costs of maintenance.

生命周期成本计算并不是一个新概念。澳大利亚标准协会于1999年首次制定了AS/ NZS标准;AS/NZS 4536 -生命周期成本计算应用指南。在任何生命周期成本评估中,涂层的初始成本是进行任何长期成本分析的一个重要组成部分,同样需要确定涂层可能的免维护寿命和未来的维护成本。

A bit of History

Protective coating costs>在大多数工程项目中,保护层成本占工程总成本的比例相对较小;一般少于2%。对于一个包含1000吨结构钢的大型钢铁项目,一个基本的防护涂层系统的成本可能是500美元/吨,一个高性能的涂层系统可能是1000美元/吨,一个特殊的超级耐用规格可能是1500美元/吨。

This equates to an additional project cost of $500,000 - $1,500,000. If a project accountant applied a net present value analysis to this in the 1980’s, when interest rates exceeded 15% and company taxation was well over 40%, the option of using the cheaper coating and expensing accelerated maintenance costs would seem a sound financial decision.

这等于一个额外项目费用$50万至$ 150万。如果一个项目会计在20世纪80年代将净现值分析应用于此,当时利率超过15%,公司税收远远超过40%,选择使用更便宜的涂层和花费加速维护成本似乎是一个明智的财务决策。

However, in the 21st Century, company tax is>然而,在21世纪,公司税只有30%,利率更低,所以税务局不再对维修费用给予同样程度的补贴。此外,支出的维护成本在资产负债表上所占的比例超过了原始储蓄的利息收益。

Also, the labour costs of the 1980’s did not include the>此外,80年代的劳动力成本不包括退休金、更高的工人补偿和雇主的其他法定义务。五彩堂棋牌_[官网入口]WH&S和环境责任也与今天不同。

It is thus very difficult to foretell the distant future for the purposes of life-cycle costing for protective coatings, and conditions in 2035 will have changed as much in that 25-year cycle as they did between 1950, 1975 and 2000.


The other reality faced by asset owners, particularly of infrastructure assets, is that their service life is often far longer that originally anticipated. Many power distribution and transport structures are now well over 50 years old and are subject to numerous maintenance cycles to maintain their functionality.



The other issue with maintenance coatings is that they add very little value to a business. They make no contribution to efficiency or productivity.


For this reason, the selection of an appropriate protective coating system for steel, be it paint, galvanizing, or a combination of both should be based>五彩堂棋牌_[官网入口]因此,选择合适的钢铁防护涂层系统,无论是油漆、电镀还是两者的结合,都应该基于涂层的长期性能,而不是它的初始成本。

Factors in the Cost of a Coating


Australian Standards such as AS/NZS 2312:2002 – Guide to the protection of iron and steel against atmospheric corrosion contains comprehensive guidelines related to coating selection versus environmental condition to provide an estimated service life for a range of coating systems.

五彩堂棋牌_[官网入口]澳大利亚标准,如/NZS 2312:2002—《钢铁抗大气腐蚀保护指南》,包含了有关涂层选择与环境条件的综合指南,为各种涂层系统提供了估计的使用寿命。

Material Selection


The choice between materials of construction will usually be a `steel versus concrete decision’, with a proportion of projects being a composite of both.


The decision may be based>这个决定可能是基于设计师对一种或另一种材料的熟悉程度,结构的形式,它的位置,最重要的是,它的安装成本。


While the protective coating costs are a relatively small component of the total projects cost, they can be a significant proportion of the structural steel cost. In addition, steel simply cannot be used (with a few exceptions) without protective coatings and these coatings will have a defined life that will determine future maintenance costs.


While steel and fabrication costs are volatile, benchmark costs obtained in mid-2012 indicate that the cost components are approximately as follows for standard medium structural steel:


Medium structural steel cost: $1200/t


Fabrication cost: $3000 - $5000/t

制造成本:3000 - 5000美元/吨

Coating Costs for new Steelwork


The cost of coating new steelwork is made up of a number of factors. These are:

  1. The type of steel – size, shape, section.钢的型号-尺寸、形状、截面。

  2. The quantity of steel钢材数量

  3. The location of the project with respect to the coating provider, the fabricator and the site.关于涂料供应商、制造商和现场的项目位置。

  4. The regional cost of labour地区劳动力成本

  5. The material cost (paint components/zinc/ chemicals)材料成本(油漆成分/锌/化学品)

  6. The cost of surface preparation (abrasive blasting/chemical/mechanical)表面处理成本(喷砂/化学/机械)

  7. The cost of application – number of coats, plant capability, processing time应用成本-涂层数量,工厂能力,处理时间

  8. Logistic costs – inspection, loading, transport, erection物流成本-检验,装载,运输,安装

  9. Post erection costs – remediation of handling damage,>

    For applied coatings (paint, metallising) the surface area of the steelwork and the complexity of the fabrication will be the most significant factors influencing the cost. Logically, thin steel sections with high surface area per tonne will absorb more labour and materials than heavy structural sections.


    For example, a 3 mm thick steel section has a surface area per tonne of over 80 m2, while a 10 mm section has a surface area of 25 m2 per tonne.


    For process-applied coatings (hot dip and continuous galvanizing, powder coating), material costs and fixed costs are important, making the profitability of these processes very volume sensitive.


    Typical Material Costs


    Many of the materials incorporated in coatings are traded as commodities with supply and demand affecting prices above and beyond normal inflationary variations. The following indicative prices are for generic materials used in coating in mid-2008, in commercial quantities




    Zinc dust锌粉


    Red oxide zinc phosphate磷酸锌红


    Epoxy primer环氧底漆


    High build epoxy环氧厚涂


    Urethane – standard grade聚氨酯-标准等级


    Urethane GP3 grade聚氨酯GP3年级




    Acrylic – water based丙烯酸-水基


    Acrylic – catalysed对丙烯酸-催化


    Paint Coatings

    The true material cost of paint coatings is determined by how much of what is in the can ends up>油漆涂料的实际材料成本是由罐内的材料在钢表面的含量决定的。这是由涂料中固体颗粒的体积、涂层的厚度和涂层效率(过喷损失)决定的。

    Low volume solids will result in higher losses due to solvent evaporation. Simple solid structures (beams, tanks) will experience higher coating efficiencies that open structures (pipe work and trusses)


    One litre of paint, applied to a wet film thickness of 100 microns will theoretically cover 10 m2 of surface. In practice, the same paint applied to a dry film thickness of 100 microns, to medium structural steel by airless spray will cover approximately 5 m2.


    All paint suppliers have product safety data sheets for each of their paints. These documents list technical specifications for the paint, including volume solids, recommendations for wet and dry film thickness requirements and theoretical coverage.


    In addition to the paint cost, most solvent-based spray applied coatings require the addition of thinners, (typically around 30% by volume) which becomes a component of the paint material cost.


    An important point to note is that the paint cost is a relatively small proportion of the applied system cost. Based>需要注意的重要一点是,涂料成本占应用系统成本的比例相对较小。根据典型的实际覆盖率为$5.00/m2,基本工业环氧树脂或聚氨酯与高性能聚氨酯或聚硅氧烷之间的成本差异约为$3.00-$4.00/m2。

    The most significant single cost in paint coatings is surface preparation. Abrasive blasting is almost mandatory to ensure acceptable performance for industrial paint systems.


    Fabricated steelwork is usually abrasive blasted with chilled iron shot, in a chamber that allows recovery and recycling of the blasting media. Abrasive blasting standards are defined in Australian Standard AS 1627.4. Class 2 ½ Blast is most commonly specified for industrial coating, with Class 3 (the highest level) being a requirement for specialised coatings such as zinc metal spray.


    Abrasive blasting costs vary regionally, but generally fall in the $15.00 - $20.00/m2 range. Large automated blasting facilities using wheelabrador equipment to process columns, beams and plates can significantly reduce this cost.

    喷砂成本因地区而异,但一般在$15.00 - $20.00/m2范围内。大型自动化爆破设施使用轮对爆破设备来处理柱、梁和板可以大大降低成本。

    Where galvanized coatings are to be painted, Class 1 or whip blasting is generally specified. This involves using less aggressive media such as garnet or illmentite, at typical cost ranging from $10.00 - $15.00/m2, depending>如果要喷涂镀锌涂层,一般规定为1级或起爆。这包括使用不太激进的媒体,如石榴石或illmentite,典型的成本从$10.00到$15.00/m2不等,这取决于制造的复杂性。

    Chemical preparation (pickling, phosphating) is rarely used as a method of preparing fabricated steel for painting, and is confined to process applied coatings such as powder coating and galvanizing.


    Powder coating costs are usually charges>粉末涂料的成本通常是按“窗口面积”而不是按表面积计算的,因为产品在粉末涂料生产线上所占的面积是其加工成本的主要因素。对于标准等级的聚酯粉末,粉末涂料的成本通常为$15.00 - $20.00/m2,尽管大量的均匀生产的产品可以装载到高生产线效率,也可以以较低的成本粉末涂料。

    With all costs included (labour, overheads, margins) indicative industrial painting costs for commonly specified systems are:


    NOTE: These are indicative average prices>注:这些只是指示性平均价格,并将根据地区和项目的设计而有所不同。

    Galvanized Coatings

    The parameters governing the cost of galvanized coatings are quite different to those determining paint costs.


    Continuously applied galvanized coatings applied to sheet, wire and tube are applied in facilities with high capital and operating cost, with large volumes of steel being able to be processed very efficiently.


    For this reason, the galvanized coating cost component of these products is relatively small and driven by the material (zinc) cost. In addition, these technologies apply relatively thin zinc coatings – usually less than 30 microns per side for a material cost of about $0.75/m2 of surface.


    Hot dip galvanized coatings applied to fabricated steelwork are priced>用于装配式钢结构的热浸镀锌涂层的价格是根据镀锌槽处理的吨位来定的。因此,表面面积是不显着镀锌成本。能够以高负载密度加载到镀锌夹具中的薄片将会吸引相对较低的镀锌成本,而包含重型通用截面的三维结构制造的加工成本可能会更高。

    Hot dip galvanized coatings are almost always costed>热浸镀锌涂料的价格几乎都是a美元。/吨。典型的镀锌成本从每吨650美元到1500美元不等,如大型工程中使用的柱和梁等重而简单的构件。需要双头浸洗的物品通常会收取额外费用,而非帐户客户的小型一次加工(拖架、熟铁、锚等),每公吨收费约为$2000至$2500。

    The cost per square metre for hot dip galvanizing reduces quite significantly as sections become thinner. The following examples illustrate this:


    Medium structural steel – 10 mm average thickness

    中等结构钢- 10毫米平均厚度

    Galvanizing cost: $700/tonne


    Surface area per tonne: 25 m2/tonne
    Cost/m2: $28/m2

    成本/ m2: 28美元/平方米

    Light fabrications - 3 mm average section thickness

    轻加工- 3毫米平均截面厚度

    Galvanizing cost $1500/tonne
    Surface area per tonne: 85 m2/tonne
    Cost/m2: $18.00/m2

    成本/ m2: 18.00美元/平方米

    A fringe benefit of hot dip galvanizing, because it is an immersion process, is that all internal surfaces of hollow sections are coated uniformly. This may be an advantage or disadvantage, as the external surface area of a hollow section is>热镀锌的一个附带好处是,由于它是一种浸镀工艺,所有空心型材的内表面都得到了均匀的涂层。这可能是一个优点,也可能是一个缺点,因为空心截面的外表面面积只有相同截面厚度的开口截面的一半。

    Another fringe benefit of hot dip galvanizing compared to both paint coatings and continuously galvanized coatings is that the applied coating thickness almost always in excess of Australian Standard requirements.


    This is a bonus for the customer, as additional zinc pick-up>这对客户来说是一个额外的好处,因为镀锌器不能准确地预测钢结构上额外的锌含量,因为它受到钢的表面条件、截面厚度和化学成分的影响。它可以增加50- 100美元/吨的镀锌材料成本,与客户额外的锌按比例添加到涂层的使用寿命额外的奖金。

    The Realties of Future Maintenance


    Where maintenance coating is required>如果一个基础设施或工业项目需要维护涂层,那么在25年前,2008年的实际成本甚至不会被考虑在内。

    The major cost factors impacting>影响维修成本的主要成本因素包括:

    It is worth looking at each of these factors in more detail.


    1. Access

    It is now mandatory in most jurisdictions in Australia to use scaffolding systems when working at heights. Ladders and trestles are no longer acceptable for commercial coating contractors.


    The cost of erecting, hiring and dismantling scaffolding is a major component of any maintenance coating operation. Since the introduction of more stringent safety requirements>安装、租用和拆除脚手架的费用是任何维护涂层操作的主要组成部分。由于对住宅建筑工地实施了更严格的安全规定,现在很少有房屋在建造过程中不需要搭建脚手架。虽然这与工业涂料的生命周期成本没有直接联系,但值得注意的是,澳大利亚住宅脚手架市场的价值现在每年超过2.5亿美元。

    On industrial projects, much larger scaffolding systems may be required to provide the needed access for maintenance.


    In assessing the likely maintenance costs, access factors can be applied to life cycle costing models to more accurately estimate costs>在评估可能的维护成本时,可以将访问因子应用于生命周期成本计算模型,从而更准确地估计特定结构的成本。

    It is possible to classify structures for assessing access issues. The following is an example:


    2. Containment

    Like access, containment costs will vary with the complexity of the requirements for containment. As with access, models can be developed to classify containment levels and factor in the costs of containment for a specific containment requirement.


    An example of classification of containment factors is as follows:


    A good example of high-level containment is the maintenance painting program undertaken>高水平遏制的一个很好的例子是对悉尼港大桥上的地下钢结构进行的维护喷漆项目,该项目也包含非常复杂的阶段和入口系统。

    Where lead based paints are concerned, additional environmental management systems may be required to monitor local soil and water system during the remediation activities.


    3. WH&S Management职业健康

    Worker safety is now the first priority in any business and where heights are involved, stringent requirements for personal safety equipment are mandatory. Industrial manslaughter laws apply in many Australian States, and while managers should not need the threat of such legislation to care for the welfare of their workers, it is an indication that the most stringent risk assessments must be applied to any hazardous activity.


    Certified safety equipment is mandatory when working at height, and approved safety harnessing and attachment systems have to be provided by contractors. Other Workcover regulations related to working in enclosed spaces places further>在高空作业时,必须配备合格的安全设备,承包商必须提供经批准的安全控制和连接系统。与在封闭空间内工作有关的其他工作覆盖规定进一步规定了雇主的责任,以确保在提供维护涂层服务时不采取任何削减成本的捷径。

    4. Productivity生产力

    Each of the above factors will have an impact>以上每一个因素都会对生产力产生影响。新钢铁厂的劳动力成本约占涂层成本的75-80%。现场维护,劳动力成本组件是更大,为此材料成本(油漆成本)宽容更重要和更昂贵的表面油漆对维修项目的总成本,并代表更好价值的期望更高水平的性能。

    Surface preparation is the most labour-intensive part of the process. Surfaces may be contaminated with soluble salts so may require water washing/ blasting prior to mechanical removal of the rusted surface or failed paint coating.


    As a guide, the cost per square metre for maintenance coating a rusted steel structure may be 5-10 times the cost of applying an equivalent coating to new steelwork.




    Regardless of the protective coating used, there is a strong case, particularly in the present environment of low interest rates and decreasing company taxes, to use the longest life coatings available commensurate with the design life of the asset.

    This may mean more stringent inspection with applied coatings, the use of QA certified applicators or the insistence in a coating performance guarantee from the supplier to better manage the risk and avoid the inevitable and more costly than expected future maintenance costs.


    • None – No recovery of residues or paint.没有-没有回收残留物或油漆。

    • Level 4 (Minimum) – For abrasive blast cleaning>

      Level 3 (Moderate) – For abrasive blast cleaning – air penetrable walls, rigid or flexible framing, partially sealed entryways and joints, exhaust air filtration.3级(中等)-用于磨料喷砂清理-空气可穿透的墙壁,刚性或柔性框架,部分密封的入口和接头,排气过滤。

    • Level 2 (High) – For abrasive blast cleaning – air impenetrable walls rigid or flexible framing, fully sealed joints, airlock entryways, negative air flows and exhaust air filtration.2级(高)-用于磨料喷砂清理-空气不透壁,刚性或柔性框架,全密封接头,气闸入口,负气流和排气过滤。

    • Level 1 – Simple structure to 15 m. Maintenance able to continue while structure is operational. Easy access for scaffolding or lifts.一级-简单结构,高度15米。结构运行时可以继续进行维护。方便脚手架或升降机。

    • Level 2 – Simple structure 15-30 m. Greater scaffolding requirements. Maintenance able to be done while structure operational.二级-简单结构,高15-30米。更大的脚手架要求。能够在结构运行时进行维护。

    • Level 3 – Simple structure over 30 m. Specialised external access required. Operating requirements of other plant and equipment must be considered.三级-简单结构,高度30米以上。需要特殊的外部访问。必须考虑其他工厂和设备的操作要求。

    • Level 4 – Complex structure to 15 m. Internal and external access required. Operating requirements of other plant and equipment must be considered.四级-复杂结构,高度15米。需要内部和外部访问。必须考虑其他工厂和设备的操作要求。

    • Level 5 – Complex structure 15 – 30 m. Internal and external access required. Staging at each level may be required. Operating requirements of other plant and equipment must be considered.5级-复杂结构,15 - 30米。需要内部和外部访问。可能需要在每个级别上进行分段。必须考虑其他工厂和设备的操作要求。

    • Level 6 – Complex structure over 30 m. Staged internal and specialised external access required. Operating requirements of other plant and equipment must be considered.6级- 30米以上的复杂结构。需要阶段性的内部和特殊的外部访问。必须考虑其他工厂和设备的操作要求。

    1. Access

    2. Containment

    3. OH&S Management

    4. Productivity

    5. Basic wire brush/Class1 blast and ROZP prime ---> $12.00/m2基本钢丝刷/Class1 blast和ROZP prime -> $12.00/m2

    6. Class 2 ½ blast + inorganic zinc primer ---> $25.00/m2类2½爆炸+无机富锌底漆- - - > 25.00美元/平方米

    7. Class 2 ½ blast + inorganic zinc primer + epoxy topcoat ---> $35.00/m2类2½爆炸+无机富锌底漆+环氧面漆- - - > 35.00美元/平方米

    8. Class 2 ½ blast + inorganic zinc primer + urethane ---> $45.00/m2类2½爆炸+无机富锌底漆+聚氨酯- - - > 45.00美元/平方米

扫码加入筑龙结构设计北京微信群 每日为您优选最受欢迎精品资料

分享到微信朋友圈 ×

请点击右上角按钮 ,选择 

 发表于2020-02-12   |  只看该作者      





页面底部区域 foot.htm